13 April 2021
Twenty years after 9/11 and the War on Terror, many questions remain unanswered.
The rhetoric of exporting an American version of democracy has in fact left us with the erosion of global citizenship, while the arbitrary deprivation of freedoms and rights has become the new normal.
The Polis Project and CAGE are thrilled to announce a joint reflection to understand the present through the events of the last twenty years. In dialogue with the communities who are most affected by the Islamophobia and racialization of terror that followed 9/11, we plan a series of publications, conversations, and online public events to make boarder political connections between the significance of political prisoners and the history of criminalization of dissent.
As part of our collaboration, between April and September 2021 we’ll publish the profiles of the forever prisoners, the forty men who are still kept with no charge or trial in the American military detention camp in Guantánamo.
Seven former prisoners – who are now accomplished authors and public figures – wrote an open letter to the President of the United States Joe Biden requesting the closure of Guantánamo and recommending a roadmap for it.
We write to you as former prisoners of the United States held without charge or trial at the military detention facility at Guantánamo Bay who have written books about our experiences.
First, we welcome your presidential orders to reverse many unjust and problematic decisions made by your predecessor. We appreciate your repeal of the “Muslim ban,” which will now allow nationals from the Muslim-majority countries previously targeted into the United States, therefore bringing relief to families torn apart by this order.
Despite some positive developments, including the repeal of the Muslim ban, there is another deeply flawed and unjust process that has continued through five US presidential administrations spanning two decades: Guantánamo Bay prison. Guantánamo Bay has existed for over nineteen years and was built to house an exclusively Muslim male population.
We understand that your faith is important to you and helps to guide your vision of social justice. During our incarceration, we often reflected on the story of the Prophet Joseph (Yusuf) in the Quran and his years of wrongful imprisonment. It’s the same story in the Bible and one that reminds us that justice is not only divine, but timeless. That is why we are writing to you.
Although most of us were released under President Bush, everyone was hopeful that President Obama would follow through with his executive order to close Guantánamo in 2009. While some of us were released under Obama, however, it became clear during his tenure as president that ending imprisonment at Guantánamo was not a promise he could fulfill.
Many of us were abducted from our homes, in front of our families, and sold for bounties to the US by nations that cared little for the rule of law. We were rendered to countries where we were physically and psychologically tortured in addition to suffering racial and religious discrimination in US custody—even before we arrived at Guantánamo.
Some of us had children who were born in our absence and grew up without fathers. Others experienced the pain of learning that our close relatives died back home waiting in vain for news of our return. Waiting in vain for justice.
Most of the prisoners currently or presently detained at Guantánamo have never been to the United States. This means that our image of your country has been shaped by our experiences at Guantánamo—in other words, we have only been witnesses to its dark side.
Considering the violence that has happened at Guantánamo, we are sure that after more than nineteen years, you agree that imprisoning people indefinitely without trial while subjecting them to torture, cruelty and degrading treatment, with no meaningful access to families or proper legal systems, is the height of injustice. That is why imprisonment at Guantánamo must end.
There are only forty prisoners left in Guantánamo. We are told that the cost of each prisoner is $13 million per annum. That means that the United States spends $520 million a year on imprisoning men who will never be charged or convicted in a US court. Aside from the moral, legal, and public relations disaster that is Guantánamo, some of this money could be easily spent on programs to resettle prisoners and help them to rebuild their lives.
President Bush opened it. President Obama promised to close it, but failed to do so. President Trump promised to keep it open. It is now your turn to shape your legacy with regards to Guantánamo.
At your inauguration, you told the world: “We will be judged, you and I, by how we resolve these cascading crises of our era. We will rise to the occasion.” It is therefore our suggestion that the following steps are taken to close Guantánamo:
- All those cleared for release are immediately repatriated to their home countries, as long as they are safe from arbitrary imprisonment and persecution.
- The office for the special envoy is reopened and suitable countries are sought to restart the resettlement process for those unable to return to their homes.
- Appropriate measures are taken to ensure that former prisoners are granted the means to start a meaningful life in the new country and are afforded protections from violations of those measures by the receiving state.
- The concept of “forever prisoners” is rescinded, and those not facing charges under the military commissions are repatriated or resettled (as above) following appropriate security arrangements.
- Repatriation/resettlement should not take place by force, and prisoners are not resettled where they will face arbitrary imprisonment once again.
- Periodic Review Board reports should be superseded by the imperative to close Guantánamo and not obstruct the above measures.
- The military commissions should be scrapped, and those facing charges should have their cases tried in accordance with the law.
- Where appropriate and practicable, mechanisms are put in place whereby those convicted of crimes can serve their sentences closer to home.
Guantánamo causes deep distrust in what America says and stands for. Prisoners from forty-nine different countries once occupied Guantánamo’s cells. Those prisoners look to America as a nation of laws and freedoms and see little of either. For two decades, the world has observed Guantánamo and noted that it is a bipartisan project, carried out by both Republicans and Democrats. That is what you must contend with and change.
Despite the abuses, after detention, many of us befriended and welcomed into our homes former US soldiers who guarded us. We’ve always believed there was another way.
During your tenure as vice president, America freed senior Taliban leaders from Guantánamo. Today, they head negotiations with top US officials to bring about peace in Afghanistan. During your inauguration speech you said, “Every disagreement doesn’t have to be a cause for total war.” We agree. In fact, as Obama once said, Guantánamo “should never have opened.” We believe you can close Guantánamo before its looming twentieth anniversary.
It is our sincere hope that you do.
The signatories of the open letter are:
Mansoor Adayfi is a Yemeni national who was tortured imprisoned for 14 years without charge or trial in Guantanamo. He was resettled to Serbia in 2016. Since then, he has written articles that have appeared in the New York Times that discuss life and art in Guantanamo. Mansoor has also written a book Don’t Forget US Here which will be released in August.
Moazzam Begg, a British citizen who was tortured and imprisoned without charge at Bagram and Guantánamo for three years. He is a UK-based author and the outreach director for CAGE, a group that campaigns on behalf of survivors of injustices committed in the name of the War on Terror. His book is called Enemy Combatant.
Lakhdar Boumediane is an Algerian-born citizen of Bosnia who was held and tortured at Guantanamo for seven years without trial. His case in the US Supreme court, Boumediene v Bush (2008) granted Guantanamo prisoners the right to file writs of habeas corpus in U.S. courts. He was resettled in France in 2008 where co-authored his experiences of Guantanamo – with another former Guantanamo prisoner – entitled Witnesses to the Unseen.
Sami Al Hajj is a Sudanese citizen who was tortured and imprisoned without trial in Guantanamo for 7 years. He was detained by the US while working as a correspondent for the Al Jazeera news channel. Shortly after his release, Sami rejoined Al Jazeera as its head of human rights and public liberties in Qatar. He also authored a book (in Arabic), Guantanamo: My Story
Ahmed Errachidi is a Moroccan citizen who was held in extrajudicial detention at Guantanamo for five years. Five years after his release, Ahmed wrote a book entitled The General: The ordinary man who challenged Guantanamo which told the story of his life and incarceration.
Mohammed Ould Slahi is a Mauritanian national who was imprisoned without trial at Guantanamo for 14 years. His book, Guantanamo Diary, became a best-seller during his years of incarceration and despite heavy redactions by the US military. Following his release in 2016, Mohamedou’s story was depicted in the hit-film, The Mauritanian which was nominated for 5 BAFTAs. The unredacted version of his book was republished under the same title.
Moussa Zemmouri is a Belgian citizen of Morrocan origin who was tortured and imprisoned in Guantanamo for three years without charge. Moussa is a renowned reciter of the Quran within the local Muslim community. In 2008, he authored his prison memoir (in Dutch), Innocent in Guantanamo.
Letter originally published here.
Ghassan al-Sharbi – Prisoner number 682
Ghassan al-Sharbi was taken into extrajudicial custody in 2002. Al-Sharbi, who is originally from Saudi Arabia was captured in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Serious charges against al-Sharbi were dropped, when it came to light that he had been tortured into giving a false confession.
Abdul Latif Nasir – Prisoner number 244
Abdul Latif Nasir is a Moroccon citizen who is held in extra-judicial custody despite no official charges against him. The torture he endured while in captivity, is well documented. Nasir attempted to file a request, during the last days of the Obama administration, to be transferred out of the Guantanamo facility, however was unable to secure release by the time Donald Trump assumed the presidency.
Ali Hamza Al Bahlul – Prisoner number 39
Ali Hamza Al Bahlul is a Yemeni who was taken into custody for presumably being a military combatant. Al Bahlul was implicated for supposedly being connected to Osama Bin Laden, but most charges against him were dropped in 2013. He was, however, convicted of participation in a criminal conspiracy, and his request to appeal the decision was denied. Al Bahlul is subject to torture in the United States captivity.
Abdul Razzak Ali – Prisoner number 685
Abdul Razzak Ali is an Algerian citizen held in extrajudicial custody at the Guantanamo since 2002, without charge. Ali was taken captive in Pakistan and has testified to being subjected to torture by American authorities. Ali is one of 11 prisoners who filed a major legal challenge against Trump’s Guantánamo policies in January 2018.
Uthman Abdul Rahim Mohammed Uthman – Prisoner number 27
Uthman Abdul Rahim Mohammed Uthman is a Yemeni citizen who was taken into custody by American authorities in the Af-Pak region. Uthman was reportedly tortured while in custody. With no release date in sight, Uthman has now spent nineteen years at the Guantánamo facility.
Ridah Bin Saleh Al Azidi – Prisoner number 38
Ridah Bin Saleh Al Azidi is a Tunisian citizen who was taken into custody from the Af-Pak region. Azidi has been detained in the Guantánamo facility since 2001, and has suffered torture during his time there. Azidi was one of the prisoners whose release was ordered towards the end of the Obama administration. However, his freedom was not secured by the time Donald Trump took office, and the order was subsequently reversed.
Tawfiq Al Bihani – Prisoner number 893
Tawfiq Al Bihani is a citizen of Saudi Arabia who was abducted by the American authorities on Pakistani soil. Al Bihani was taken into custody in 2002, and has now spent over 18 years in the Guantánamo facility without charge. Al Bihani’s experience of torture while in detention is well documented.
Muieen Adeen Al Sattar – Prisoner number 309
Muieen Adeen Al Sattar is a Pakistani citizen who was taken into custody by the American authorities on Pakistani soil in 2001. Al Sattar endured torture while in detention at the Guantánamo facility. His transfer out of the facility was ordered by the Obama administration, however, the decision was revered under the Trump presidency.
Omar Mohammad – Prisoner number 1017
Omar Mohammad is a Yemeni citizen who has been detained at the Guantanamo facility since 2003. Mohammad was taken into custody in Georgia. His torture at the hands of American authorities during his imprisonment is well documented. His appeal for freedom was denied by the Guantánamo Review Task Force in 2010.
Ismael Ali Faraj – Prisoner number 708
Ismael Ali Faraj is a Libyan citizen who was seized by American authorities on Pakistani soil back in 2002. Faraj is subjected to torture while in custody at the Guantanamo facility. His appeal for freedom was denied by the Guantánamo Review Task Force in 2010.
Hani Saleh Rashid – Prisoner number 841
Hani Saleh Rashid is a Yemeni citizen, who was abducted from Pakistani soil and has been held in extrajudicial custody at the Guantanamo prison since 2002. Despite being cleared for release during the Trump presidency, Rashid remains in captivity.
Mohammad Al Qahtani – Prisoner number 63
Mohammad Al Qahtani is a Saudi citizen who was abducted from Pakistan in 2002 and was taken to the Guantanamo facility. Qahtani was only 22 years old at the time. American authorities admitted to torturing him and the damage done to Qahtani’s physical and mental health is well documented. All charges against Qahtani were dropped in 2008, yet he continues to be held captive.
Sufiyan Barhoumi – Prisoner number 694
Sufiyan Barhoumi is an Algerian citizen who was abducted by American authorities from Afghan soil in 2002. He has since spent more than 18 years in extra-judicial custody without charge. Barhoumi, who was tortured in custody, appealed to be transferred from the Guantanamo facility during the Obama presidency, however his request was denied.
Saifullah Paracha – Prisoner number 1094
Saifullah Paracha is a Pakistani citizen who has spent almost 18 years in American custody at the Guantanamo prison facility. Paracha was abducted from Bangkok in 2003, and was subjected to torture while in captivity. His lawyer, Zachary Katznelson, appealed to the Pakistani government in 2008 for assistance in Paracha’s case, however his client continues to remain imprisoned.
Haroon Gul – Prisoner number 3148
Haroon Gul is an Afghan national who was abducted by the American authorities from his homeland in 2007. Gul has spent more than 14 years in extra-judicial custody in the Guantanamo prison facility, during which he was routinely tortured. Gul’s lawyer attempted to create public pressure to secure his release, however they remained unsuccessful.
Hassan Bin Attash – Prisoner number 1456
Hassan Bin Attash is a citizen of Yemen who was abducted from the Pakistani soil by the American authorities when he was a minor. Attash has spent almost 19 years at the Guantanamo Bay facility without charge, and his experience of torture during captivity is well documented.
AbdulSalam Al Hela – Prisoner number 1463
AbdulSalam Al Hela is a Yemeni citizen who was abducted in Cairo by American forces, while he was in the city on a business trip. Al Hela has spent over 16 years in Guantanamo, during which time two of his children also passed away in Yemen. Al Hela was kept in the Dark Prison in Afghanistan for some duration of time and was routinely subjected to torture while in American custody.
Abdul Rahim – Prisoner number 1460
Abdul Rahim is a Pakistani citizen who has spent over 16 years in the Guantanamo prison facility without any formal charge or trial. Rahim has written about the intense torture tactics he was subjected to during his time in American custody, and has repeatedly gone on hunger strikes in protest. He spent around two years in CIA run “black sites” before being transferred to Guantanamo.
Walid Bin Attash – Prisoner number 10014
Walid Bin Attash is a Yemeni citizen who was accused of helping to train the hijackers involved in the 9/11 attacks. He was abducted from Karachi, Pakistan in 2003 and has remained in American custody since, during which time he was subjected to intense torture. He was given the victim status in Poland due to the torture he endured in CIA black sites on Polish soil.
Sanad Islam Al Kazmi – Prisoner number 1453
Sanad Islam Al Kazmi is a Yemeni citizen who was abducted by American forces while he was in the UAE. Al Kazmi was taken into CIA custody in early 2003 and was tortured prior to being moved to Guantanamo. Al Kazmi has attempted suicide several times since his abduction.
Abu Zubaydah – Prisoner number 10016
Abu Zubaydah is a Palestinian citizen who was abducted from the Pakistani soil in 2o02. He has remained in American captivity since. Before being transferred to the Guantanamo facility, Abu Zubaydah was kept in the secret prison network operated by the CIA. During his time in custody, Abu Zubaydah was waterboarded 83 times, physically assaulted, deprived of solid foods, kept in dark boxes and subjected to forced nudity. His interrogation tapes were destroyed by the CIA.
Ahmed Ghulam Rabbani – Prisoner number 1461
Ahmed Ghulam Rabbani is a Pakistani citizen who was abducted on his home soil by American authorities. He has been held in extra judicial custody at the Guantanamo facility since 2004. Even though Rabbani was never charged with a crime or tried in courts, he was subjected to intense interrogation and torture at the hands of his captives.
Mustafa Faraj – Prisoner number 10016
Mustafa Faraj is a Libyan citizen who was abducted by American authorities from Pakistan in 2005. Faraj was accused of being in a leadership position in Al-Qaeda. However, in 2013 when the status of the captives at the Guantanamo facility was reviewed, it came to light that the evidence against Faraj was insufficient to officially charge him.
Ammar Al Baluchi – Prisoner number 10017
Ammar Al Baluchi is a Kuwaiti national who was abducted from Pakistani soil on suspicions of being associated with Osama Bin Laden. Baluchi has remained in American captivity since 2003, during which time he was subjected to intense torture techniques. He was charged in death penalty proceedings, however in 2018, UNHCR claimed that his detention violated international human rights laws and called on his immediate release.
Riduan Isomuddin – Prisoner number 10019
Riduan Isomuddin is an Indonesian citizen who was abducted from Thailand in 2003, allegedly after comb attacks in Bali. Isomuddin has remained in extra-judicial American captivity since and is currently held in the Guantanamo prison facility. He was subjected to torture during his time in custody, often times overlooked by a team of medical professionals in order to ensure maximum gathering of evidence. The CIA have not yet made the full details of the torture Isomuddin was subjected to public, because of the severity of it.
Hassan Guleed – Prisoner number 10023
Hassan Guleed is a Somalian who was abducted from the Djiboutian soil by American forces in 2006. Since then his mother has appealed for his release, demanding that he should be tried in the court of law. During the pandemic, military authorities cut off Guleed’s access to his team of lawyers citing health concerns.
Majid Khan – Prisoner number 10020
Majid Khan, a Pakistan, is the only legal resident of the United States who is held in the Guantanamo facility. Khan was on a trip to Pakistan to visit his wife when he was abducted by Pakistan forces and handed over to American authorities. Khan was a resident of Baltimore and has repeatedly claimed his innocence. He even asked a polygraph to prove his claims but was denied access. Khan was also denied access to a legal team for a very long time. During his time his captivity, Khan self-harmed. He went on hunger strikes to protest his arrest, and reports have emerged of Khan being subjected to rectal feeding.
Mustafa Ahmad – Prisoner number 10011
Mustafa Ahmad is a Saudi citizen who was abducted from Pakistani soil in 2007. Prior to his arrival in Guantanamo, Ahmad was kept in the Bagram airbase. During captivity, Ahmad was subjected to rectal exams conducted with excessive force, and he was later diagnosed with chronic hemorrhoids, an anal fissure, and symptomatic rectal prolapse. Ahmad was also doused with water as part of a torture routine, the impact of which is unlike waterboarding. Ahmad had to be hospitalized due to a medical emergency that occurred while he was being tortured.
Mohammad Farik Bin Amin – Prisoner number 10021
Mohammad Farik Bin Amin is a Malaysian citizen who was abducted from Thailand by American authorities. Before Amin was brought to the Guantanamo prison facility, he was kept in one of CIA’s “black sites”. The details of his torture have not been made public, however from the little information available, it is obvious that the interrogators went beyond authorized techniques.
Ramzi Bin Al Shibh – Prisoner number 10013
Ramzi Bin Al Shibh is a Yemeni citizen who was abducted from Karachi, Pakistan by Pakistani authorities and handed over to the United States for allegedly being involved in the 9/11 attacks. Shibh was held in CIA “black sites” in Morocco before being transferred to the Guantanamo prison facility in 2006. The torture Shibh was subjected is well documented. His lawyers have requested a mental health evaluation, even as Shibh claimed to be of sound mind. The psychiatrist who conducted the exam are unable to reach a conclusion on his mental state.
Mohammad Nazir Bin Lep – Prisoner number 10022
Mohammad Nazir Bin Lep is a Malaysian citizen who was abducted in Thailand by American authorities in 2003. He was moved to the Guantanamo prison facility in 2006. Bin Lep has been kept in custody despite insufficient evidence and extensively tortured during his time in custody.
Khalid Sheikh – Prisoner number 10024
Khalid Sheikh is a Pakistani citizen who was abducted from his homeland in 2003 and has since remained in American custody. Khalid Sheikh has been waterboarded over a 150 times. During the search for him, American forces reportedly subjected his two sons, six and eight years old at the time, to torture in order to force them to reveal their father’s whereabouts.
Khalid Ahmad Qasim – Prisoner number 242
Khalid Ahmad Qasim is Yemeni citizen who was abducted from Afghan territory by American forces in 2001. Qasim has remained in extra judicial custody at the Guantanamo prison facility for over 19 years where he is held under torturous conditions. He has also expressed fear of never being able to secure his release.
Abd Al Rahim – Prisoner number 10015
Abd Al Rahim is a Saudi Arabian citizen who was taken captive by American forces in the United Arab Emirates. Rahim has remained in American captivity since 2002 during which time he was subjected to immense torture. He was threatened with rape as well as with sexual violence towards his family members by American authorities. After a psychiatric evaluation, Rahim’s chief lawyer claimed that the psychiatric expert believes Nashiri is “one of the most damaged victims of torture” she has ever examined.
Abd Al Hadi Al Iraqi – Prisoner number 10026
Abd Al Hadi Al Iraqi is an Iraqi citizen who was abducted in Turkey by American forces in 2006. Iraqi was denied medical attention in American custody which resulted in permanent damage to his legs. He also suffers from spinal issues which his lawyers also blame on medical mistreatment at the Guantanamo facility.
Suhayl Al Sharabi – Prisoner number 569
Suhayl Al Sharabi is a Yemeni citizen who was abducted from Pakistani soil in 2002 and has remained in American captivity since. Al Sharabi was subject to mental and physical torture during his time at the Guantanamo prison facility. He has been forced fed over a thousand times and kept in isolation as a means of psychological torture.
Mohammad Abdul Malik – Prisoner number 10025
Mohammad Abdul Malik is a Kenyan citizen who was abducted and sent to the Guantanamo prison facility in 2007. In 2010, the Kenyan government claimed they had initiated the process of his repatriation. However, in 2016 Malik’s plea for transfer was denied despite there not being sufficient evidence against him. Malik was held in Bagram before being transferred to Guantanamo, and was subject to abuse by both the Kenyan and American authorities.
Abdu Ali al Haji Sharqawi – Prisoner Number 1457
Abdu Ali al Haji Sharqawi is a Yemeni citizen who was abducted from Pakistani soil and handed over to American forces in 2002. He was held in Jordan before being transferred to Guantanamo in 2004. During his time in captivity, Sharqawi was subject to torture. He was threatened with permanent physical and mental disability by his captors. Sharqawi’s plea for transfer from Guantanamo was denied in 2016 despite insufficient evidence to hold him.
CAGE is an independent grassroots organization that advocates for due process, the rule of law and an end to the injustices of the War on Terror. They campaign against discriminatory state policies and advocate for due process and the rule of law. They work closely with survivors across the globe, documenting their abuse and enabling them to take action and access due process.